Components of a Light Bulb

Components of a Light BulbAn electric light bulb, which is called a lamp in technical usage, produces visible light by using the flow of electric current. These bulbs have a simple structure and follow a straightforward method for creating light. Let’s have a brief discussion on what are the components of a light bulb and how does it work.

What are the Components of a Light Bulb?

A lamp does not have a complicated mechanism. So there are only a couple of elements that go into the making of it:


The exterior glass shell is known as the globe or bulb. It is a fine layer of glass that supports other lamp components along with ensuring maximum light efficiency. The globes are available in a couple of different shapes, each of which is carefully designed to make sure that the distribution of light from the filament is the maximum.


It’s a coil-shaped structure that resides within the globe. A particular amount of tungsten is required to produce the correct wavelength of light. Therefore keeping the filament in loops helps to fit that right length of tungsten into the small space.

The coiled tungsten naturally yields light when it is heated up.

Stem and Wires

There’s a glass stem at the center of the globe, supporting the coiled filament to stay at its place. Two wires are there connected to the two ends of the filament and go through the stem. One wire transports the electricity from the base, and the other one returns that used electricity to the base.


The globe is filled with inert gasses, typically argon and/or nitrogen. As the inside part does not have any air, these gasses prevent it from compression. However, their principal job is to prevent the tungsten from burning out.

The Base

It supports all the components of a light bulb so that they stay secure within the globe. It transmits the flow of electric current from the external source into the light bulb components. At the same time, it also protects the inner insulation so that electricity doesn’t backfire into the primary electrical source.

How Does a Light Bulb Work?

A light bulb operates in a pretty simple way. The base has two metal contacts that are connected to the ends of an electrical circuit on the outside and the two wires on the inside. When you connect the lamp to an external power supply, electricity flows through the contacts and one of the wires to reach the filament and heat it up. As we know heated up tungsten produces light, so the filament then lights up. Hence the gasses in the globe prevent the tungsten thread from evaporating.

So, you can see there are only a few components of a light bulb and its working principle is also pretty simple. However, lighting fixtures tend to have a broad range of hardware, shades, and electrical components.

Types of Heat Pumps

Types of Heat PumpsThe word ‘air conditioner’ is the first thing that comes to mind when you think of a cooling system for your home. However, heat pumps can be a great alternative in this case. In fact, different types of heat pumps are there for various types of heating and cooling needs.

So, what are heat pumps? They are a device that collects heat from a heat source and transfers it to another location. They can warm up a home or other buildings by pulling heat out of the ground or air. However, they also work in a reversed way to cool a building.

How Do Heat Pumps Work?

Although there are various types of heat pumps, all of them follow the same working principle. A device works just like a refrigerator or air conditioner, but in the opposite direction. It collects heat from a source such as the ground or the cooler air outside and releases it to the conditioned space instead of the surrounding environment. It uses a little amount of electrical supply to move heat from one place to another.

Heat pumps don’t generate heat, the just moves it from one location to another. For this reason, they are an energy-efficient alternative to many heating and cooling systems.

Types of Heat Pumps

You can categorize the device into three main types:

Air-to-air Heat Pump

The most common of all the kinds, the device draws heat from the air and transfers it between your home and the outside air. They are widely used for having cooling comfort in summer months, but with the use of advanced technology, these pumps now suitable for using in colder regions too.

Water Source Heat Pump

They draw heat from a body of water and transfer it inside the building. They are more efficient than air-to-air or other types of heat pumps because the transfer rate of heat from the water is higher from ground or air.

Geothermal Heat Pump

They can draw heat from both ground and water source and move it to a building. They demand a higher installation cost, but they eventually more cost effective because of their low operating expenses and energy efficiency. These are also reliable and more suitable for extreme climate conditions.

Another kind of pump called absorption heat pumps is also used in residential applications. They can absorb energy from any heat source nearby and transfer it to the specified place.

The uses of heat pump are extensive and diverse. They fulfill the space heating and cooling needs for residential and commercial buildings in different climate conditions. Besides, you’ll see them in a broad range of domestic uses such as HVAC and water heating applications.

Types of Nails

Types of NailsA nail is a pin-shaped object with a broadened flat head used to joining things together by driving into wood or other objects with a hammer or other devices. They also serve as a peg or hook to hang something and only decorative purposes sometimes. There are various types of nails for different functions. Most of them have a flattened head and a body with a sharp point. However, headless nails are available too.

Types of Nails and Their Uses

Nails, the most common of fasteners, an essential element in construction jobs where you don’t need the extra strength of screws. Let’s find out the types and uses of nails in different applications:

Forged Nails

They are made of wrought-iron and used in paneling, batten doors, rough sawn siding, etc. Featuring a three-sided head, they are ideal for creating natural antique effects. However, they uses limited these days.

Cut Nails

Made of iron sheets or steel plates, they feature a tapered body with a blunt point. They are also known as square nails because of their unique square heads. Cut nails typically used on wooden floors, fencing, cabinetry, doors, boats, and for masonry work. They give any surface the authentic look of early American construction.

Wire Nails

Made of steel wire, they are the most commonly used nails these days. However, they refer to smaller nails with a broad range of gauges than the larger finish nails.

Round and Oval Head Nails

The round head ones are used for general purposes such as for joining wood panels. Their head is ideal for using a hammer but beating too much may split the wooden surface. They are the most suitable for applications that don’t require an excellent, smooth finishing.

On the other hand, the oval head type is similar to the round head nails except for the oval-shaped head that is unlikely to split a wooden surface.

Roofing Nails

As the name suggests, these nails are mainly used for various roofing purposes. They are the key element in attaching asphalt, roofing felt, and other components used in a roof.  As they exposed to rain, the sun, and other environmental conditions, they galvanized to avoid forming of rust.

Upholstery Nails

They have a very distinctive look than other types of nails because of their dome-like heads. The small nails do the job of securing upholstery to a wide variety of furnishings.

Plastic-Headed Nails

Although the heads made of plastic, they are shatterproof. Available in a wide range of colors, they do the task of attaching or holding vinyl siding materials.

Carpet Nails

Before the manufacturing of gripper rods, these nails were very popular for holding down carpet to the flooring. However, they are still used to tack carpet in tricky, inconvenient corners.

There is also different types of nails other than the ones mentioned above. You will also see the uses of cut clasp, staple, corrugated, brads, masonry, drywall, casing, glazing sprig, and more nails in various woodwork and construction applications.

Convection Heaters Vs Radiant Heaters

Convection Heaters Vs Radiant HeatersConvection and radiant heaters are the two most common space heaters on the market. Both the heating systems can heat small spaces efficiently although their working principles different. The convention heating systems warm the environment while the radiant system warms the body. So, many people become confused over which system to use in their home or office. Let’s take a look at a discussion about convection heaters vs radiant heaters to find out which system will be your best option.

What are Convection Heaters and How They Work?

Before delving into a discussion about convection heaters vs radiant heaters, it’ll be helpful to know about the heating systems and how they work.

A convection heating system warms the air surrounding it that slowly transfers to the air stream of the entire room. How do convection heaters work? Well, they work exactly the way you heat a pot of water on a stove. They heat the air by circulating convection currents. The hot air increases in volume and slowly spreads through the place, gradually warming the atmosphere.

However, the warm air may accumulate at the ceiling especially if the room has a tall ceiling. For this reasons, most convection heaters are often paired up with ceiling fans to circulate more air and keep the heat under control.

What are Radiant Heaters and How They Work?

It’s a heating system that warms people and other objects in a room instead of directly heating the air. They work by discharging infrared radiation that travels through the air without making it hot. The human body and other objects absorb the radiation and get warm up very quickly.

Convection Heaters vs Radiant Heaters: Which System is More Efficient?

The efficiency of the systems entirely depends on your requirements. They will provide different results based on whether you want to warm up the entire room or just the people in it.

The convection currents emitted by a convection heating system interact with the surrounding air. As a result, the environment gets warm very slowly. Besides, they don’t work well in a room with a high ceiling and poor insulation unless being paired up with a ceiling fan. However, it’s the best solution for an enclosed space to keep the entire place equally warm. Hence it provide a long-term heating solution.

On the contrary, a radiant heating system can quickly warm you up. So you will stay warm for a long time even after turning off the heater. It can be used in outdoors too, but it provides immediate warmth to people and objects that are either physically close or directly in front of it. It’s not a good option for heating a room.

After the brief convection heaters vs radiant heaters analysis, it’s clear that both the systems have their plus points and downsides. So, you have to make your decision considering what services you want to get from the heating system.

Types of Heat Exchangers

Types of Heat ExchangersHeat exchangers are a kind of device that can transfer heat between two or more fluid types and a between a solid object and a liquid. They don’t need mixing up the fluids to carry the heat from one object to another. All types of heat exchangers do the same job of passing heat from one object to another. But their working principles may be different, and they are used in a wide variety of applications.

We’ll briefly discuss the types of heat exchangers and their applications to give you a basic idea about the devices or their uses in different industrial and residential fields.

Types of Heat Exchangers

Some most common kinds of heat exchangers have been discussed below:

Double Pipe

It’s the most basic and simple of all the styles available out there. It comes with a simple design and operates by following the basic working principle of heat exchangers. They are not as efficient as other types of heat exchanges, but they suitable for small industries for their cheap price and low maintenance costs.

Shell and Tube

They feature a series of tubes where two types of fluids can flow in the opposite direction, same direction, or at right angles. One fluid passes through a metal tube set while the other one flows inside a sealed shell surround the metal tubes.

They are used in high-pressure applications such as boilers in steam locomotives.

Plate or Fin

They feature a series of stacked plates of fins that are able to exchange a high volume of heat within a short time. These heat exchangers come with a gasketed or brazed design based on the kind of fluids used in them.

They are an ideal choice for food and beverage processing, refrigeration, and gas furnace applications.

Plate and Shell

They use a combination of the technologies used in shell & tube and plate heat exchangers. It feature a welded plate set and an outer shell that carry the two different fluids. They are highly compatible to be used in high temperature, high pressure, and high heat transfer applications.

Air Cooled

You will find them in those applications where there is an unavailability of a permanent source of cool water. They are typically used in motor vehicles and other mobile applications. Mostly where a fan or air flow caused by the vehicle movements supply the cold air.

Uses of Heat Exchanger

These devices used in a wide variety of applications. You’ll find them in lots of everyday uses such as air conditioning, refrigeration, space heating, planes, cars, sewage treatment, power stations, chemical plants, and more electrical supplies online. Heat exchangers help machinery and devices to work more efficiently while saving lots of energy.

So the classic example of such a device is found in the car engine where it helps in the flow of engine coolant.

Fan Forced Vs Ceramic Heater

fan forced vs ceramic heaterFan-forced heaters are a kind of space heater that uses a fan to send air to a heat source. The air then gets heated up and spreads through the surrounding area to warm up a room. They are often compared with ceramic heaters for their almost similar ability to heat up a room quickly. We’ll have a brief discussion about fan-forced vs ceramic heater and which one is the better option.

What is a Fan-forced Heater?

It’s necessary to have ideas about both the heaters and how they work before going through an analysis about fan forced vs ceramic heater.

Simply speaking, fan-forced heaters feature a combination of heater technology with fan engineering. They can turn a cold room warm more quickly than the ones that don’t use a fan.

They have a metal coil element that produces heat. The fan distributes that heat to an enclosed space. You can even turn the heating element off, which makes it a great option to be used in the summertime too.

You’ll also see fan-forced heater thermostat that helps in turning the heating switch off when the heater reaches your desired ambient temperature. However, if you want to achieve a perfect room temperature, you have to purchase an expensive fan-forced heater that has remote sensors and thermostats with less hysteresis.

What is a Ceramic Heater?

It is a kind of space heater that makes use of a heating element of PTC ceramic for producing heat. It has aluminum fins and ceramic plates. The latter becomes heated when electricity passes through it. The aluminum components then absorb the heat, which is then spread across the room by a small fan blowing across the fins.

Fan Forced vs Ceramic Heater: Which One is Better?

Well, both the types are a kind of space heaters, and they have a lot in common. Both of them uses a fan to heat up an area and do it better than the heaters that don’t use a fan.

The fan-forced is suitable for a small area, not an entire room. Besides, the fan creates an audible noise, which is annoying. The same is applicable for ceramic heaters. However, one plus point of the fan-forced type is that they can be used by turning off the heating system element. So it makes them perfect for both summer and winter.

Both the heater types are available in a variety of sizes and colors. They are portable and more efficient and safer than many other models. They convert almost all the energy input into heat, which means that they are highly efficient. Besides, they are less expensive than other heater types too because of their small size and simple construction.

So, as you can see from the above fan forced vs ceramic heater discussion, both the types are almost similar. However, a fan-forced version will be the better choice if you are looking for an all-season heater.

Types of Duct

Types of Duct FittingsDucts are a kind of conduits or passages that deliver and remove air in ventilation, heating, and cooling systems. They act as a passageway for return air, supply air, and exhaust air, and help in ensuring the thermal comfort and the quality of air in an enclosed space. There are different types of duct used in various applications.

Also known as ductwork, the duct system looks like a network that branches out lots of tubes in the ceilings, floors, and walls. It carries hot or cold air from the air conditioning system or the furnace to each room of a building or home. It is important that the system is sealed properly because a poorly insulated one can cause higher utility bills.

Air Duct Sealing

Ducts can cause loss of energy because of leakage. Properly sealed and insulated duct systems are energy-efficient because they don’t leak air or lose heat.

You can use duct tape or adhesive on some types of duct fittings, but they not suitable for air ducts. Rather, a kind of water-based duct sealant is more useful for long-term as it does not opens up over time.

If the damage is not minor type, you should always hire a professional for changing or repairing the ductwork.

Types of Duct for Air Conditioning System

A duct used in an air conditioning system functions as a channel that carries cooled air from the AC unit to your home or office. It can also remove hot or musty air from a place. We’ll focus on two types of AC ducts that are commonly used in the system:

Flexible Ductwork

They are tube-shaped wire coil covered with flexible plastic materials, and surrounded by insulation. They are suitable for using in the places where it’s not possible to install rigid ducts. Plus, they sometimes also act a bridge between a non-flexible ductwork and an AC unit.

They cost less than rigid ducts and are easy to install and fit comfortably in tricky places. However, you have to secure them properly with the minimum amount of kinks and bends to reduce the loss of air flow.

Rigid Ductwork

Available in rectangular and cylindrical shapes, and are surrounded by insulation, these ducts are reliable and last for a long time. Three most common kinds of this category are:

  1. Sheet Metal Ducts

Made of aluminum and galvanized steel, these ducts are lightweight and easy to install. They have non-porous surfaces, so they are less likely to grow molds or mildew.

2. Fiberglass Lined Ducts

They are just like the sheet metal ducts with a fiberglass lining inside or outside. They can reduce the mechanical sound of an AC system. For this reason, you’ll see them widely used in office and commercial buildings. However, they are more prone to grow molds and bacteria and can pose health risks by releasing particles of fiberglass in the air.

3. Fiberboard Ducts

Made of fiberglass and covered with a foil laminate, they are the best choice for heating and cooling systems. However, they should not be used for ventilations systems as they can release fiberglass particles into the air and they are highly prone to grow molds and fungus in humid condition.

You should always consult a professional to know which types of duct will be the best choice for your home or office.

Types of Duct Fittings

Types of ThermostatsA duct system, also known as ductwork, is a network of tubes, rectangular, or cylindrical devices that transport cold or hot air from a system to an enclosed space. You have to install the ducts by burying them inside the walls, underneath the floors, or on the ceilings. However, you’ll need different types of duct fittings for their installation.

Duct fittings are small devices that make the ductwork installation more secure and help to attach the ducts firmly to the air conditioning or other systems. They are not free-standing components but are add-ons to an existing ductwork.

Different Types of Duct Fittings

These devices can be categorized based on various factors such as the materials they are made of, their shapes, or the systems they used with. You’ll see stainless steel or PVC duct fittings; spiral, round, or rectangular duct fittings; air, heat, ventilation, or HVAC duct fittings; and more. Hence we’ll discuss here some fittings that are commonly used in household and commercial ductwork.

90 Degree Elbows

They help airflow changing the direction in a straight run of duct system. You’ll see their wide uses in fume, mist, and dust collection applications. Due to their applications in harsh environments, they are mainly made of PVC to become resistant to corrosion, oxidants, salts, bases, aliphatic solutions, and most acids.

Press-On Collars with Dampers

They help in regulating the airflow or stop it inside a duct. The recent models are engineered with modern technology that is more energy-efficient without affecting the efficiency of the entire system.

Connector Sleeve Fittings

It is one of those types of duct fittings that used with round exhaust ducts for providing an airtight connection. Therefore featuring a polyethylene gasket, their 1-bolt design makes the reassembly of ductwork easier.

Pipe Hangers & Flex Connectors

Pipe hangers reduce pipe movement. They connect to ceilings directly. On the other hand, flex connectors do the job of isolating noise and vibration to the devices they are attached to.

Duct End Caps & Duct Clamps

Their function is to cap off an unused ducting port. Made of PVC to show resistance to corrosion and different types of chemical reactions in harsh environments. These fittings are often used with a clamp for sealing the port more securely.

Duct clamps act as a bridge between two components and create a tight seal with quick closing and opening.

Machine Adapters

They make it easier for a duct system to connect with devices requiring the subtraction of dust or fume.

Tees & Duct Reducers

Tees do the job of creating a 90-degree angle in an HVAC system while duct reducers help to reduce the size of an HVAC ductwork.

Besides the fittings mentioned above, there are various types of duct fittings available for different kinds of electric supply heating and cooling systems. So you’ll see the use of angle flange adapters, adjustable nipples, hose adapters, moisture drain fittings, butterfly valves, and more.

Best Ventilation Fan for Bathroom

Ventilation Fan for BathroomToday’s homes are built more efficiently than before for better ventilation of heat and air. However, have you ever thought those long showers in the bathroom could actually hurt the structure of your home? One way of avoiding such situation is to use a bathroom vent fan. We’ll discuss in the articles about the features that you should look for if you want to buy the best ventilation fan for bathroom.

It’s natural for a high volume of moisture and humidity to be concentrated in the bathrooms. However, the problem is they cause the growth of mold and mildew, which eventually lead to the damage of building materials and structures, and even cause health problems sometimes.

Using exhaust bathroom fans is the solution to avoid such hazards. The vent fans these days are equipped with modern technologies, which make them more efficient in removing the mold spores, odors, humidity, and excess moisture.

How to Buy the Best Ventilation Fan for Bathroom

If you’ve made up your mind about installing a ventilation fan in bathroom. Check out the following features to know what you should look for to buy the best ventilation fan for bathroom:

Air Flow Capacity

The fans are available with different air flow capacities, which measured by the unit cfm (cubic feet per minute). The right measurement is cfm for per square foot of floor space. So, you need to buy a vent with at least 50cfm if your bathroom is 50 square feet.

If your bathroom is bigger than 100 square feet, add 100cfm for each whirlpool and 50cfm for each shower and toilet.

Noise Level

It determines how noisy the fan will be. Top-rated fans operate quietly or produce a very little sound that almost inaudible. Sones is the unit for measuring the degree of loudness. A vent fan with more than four sones will create annoying noise while the models with 0.5 to 1.2 sones will be almost mute.

Energy Efficiency

The fans with this feature will save your utility bills. Some modern exhaust fans are equipped with a high-performance motor that not only keeps the noise down but also saves energy. The safe bet is to buy a model that has the Energy Star label. However, those models will be better that also have the certification of the Air Movement and Control Association or the Home Ventilation Institute.

Additional Features

Manufacturers produce many models these days that have some additional smart features. Some fans have motion sensor option that switches the fan on when someone enters the bathroom. Some models have humidity sensor option for automatic turning on where there’s a high level of moisture in the air. There are some bathroom ventilation fans with light and heat system too.

So, keep these features in mind if you want to buy the best ventilation fan for bathroom.

Radiant Heating System

Radiant Heating SystemRadiant heaters emit infrared rays and warm up people’s skin, clothes, and other objects without heating the air in the surrounding atmosphere. A radiant heating system can be used in both indoor and outdoor. However, it is more suitable than a convection heating system for outdoor applications. The air always moves in the outside, so it will be impractical to use a system, such as a convection heater, which warms up a place by heating up the air.

How Do Radiant Heaters Work?

A radiant heating system discharges infrared radiation that does not interact with the surrounding air flow. Instead, it interferes with solid objects such as clothes, the human body, or furniture pieces and transfers the heat to them.

It is rather one-directional where the electromagnetic waves travel through a straight line and heat up solid objects that come in contact with.

The Advantages of Using a Radiant Heating System

Using radiant heaters instead of other types will give you certain benefits:

More Efficiency

Such a heater transfers the heat directly to an object. There is no loss on the way. Besides, waves don’t interact with the air, so you’ll get instant heat from the radiant heaters.

Better Option for Zone Heating

It provides heat is a more direct way, which makes it a good option for zone heating. You can use multiple heating systems for creating different temperatures in different areas of the same room. Besides, the radiation naturally drifts to the place where the temperature is low. So, a radiant heating system saves lots of energy as well as increases comfort.

No Annoying Noise

Radiant heaters discharge heat without creating any noise. The heating causes no air movement and blends well into the surrounding atmosphere. So, if you want a heater without the annoying sound, a radiant heating system is the right choice.

Types of Radiant Heaters

These heaters are available in various styles for residential applications. Let’s take a look:

Radiant Electric Heaters

They have metal heating coils that become hot and emit heat when electricity runs through them. Typically used in space heaters, but you’ll also see ceiling or floor mounted versions.

Radiant Gas Heaters

They operate by burning gas to warms up air, which transfers heat to a radiant tubing. Radiation starts getting discharged from the tubing when its temperature rises to the right level. Such heaters need an additional ventilation system to work properly.

Radiant Floor Heaters

Installed under the floor, these heaters produce heat by warming a series of electric cabling, water tubes, or hot air tubes. The flooring material takes the heat and spreads it throughout the room.

Radiant Panels

These heaters have aluminum panels connected to a hot water tube or electrical supply cabling, which creates heat and transfers it to the object attached to it. They are installed in the ceiling or floor.